Standardizing a volume benchmark for cerebrospinal fluids for optimal diagnostic accuracy.

TitleStandardizing a volume benchmark for cerebrospinal fluids for optimal diagnostic accuracy.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2021
AuthorsKim D, Alperstein SA, Siddiqui MT
JournalDiagn Cytopathol
Date Published2021 Feb
KeywordsAdolescent, Adult, Aged, Aged, 80 and over, Benchmarking, Cerebrospinal Fluid, Child, Child, Preschool, Cytodiagnosis, Female, Flow Cytometry, Humans, Infant, Infant, Newborn, Male, Middle Aged, Neoplasms, Reference Standards, Retrospective Studies, Young Adult

INTRODUCTION: Cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) cytomorphologic analysis remains the gold standard in the evaluation of malignant leptomeningeal involvement. However, collection of optimal volumes for adequate cytomorphologic evaluation is not standardized. Our study investigated optimal CSF volumes that result in a significant diagnostic result.

METHODS: A total of 4114 samples were retrospectively identified from 2014 to 2018, and 2557 samples had concurrent flow cytometry (FC) study. Each specimen was grouped as unsatisfactory, negative, atypical, or positive. Positive samples were grouped as either solid tumors, leukemia, or lymphoma by the type of malignancy detected. Demographic data as well as CSF source was recorded. Specimens with FC were separated by detection on cytology and/or FC. A t-test and ANOVA test were used to compare the average volumes for each group.

RESULTS: Average volumes for negative, atypical, and positive samples are 7.48 mL (95% CI: 7.33, 7.63), 7.97 mL (95% CI: 7.37, 8.57), and 8.44 mL (95% CI: 7.46, 9.43), respectively. Average volumes for solid tumors, leukemia, and lymphoma positive samples are 12.0 mL (95% CI: 9.11, 14.89), 6.73 mL (95% CI: 5.94, 7.53), and 8.44 mL (95% CI: 6.78, 10.09). For cases with FC, the volumes are 10.11 mL (95% CI: 9.28, 10.96), 7.28 mL (95% CI: 6.87, 7.70), and 6.86 mL (95% CI: 6.25, 7.49) for positive cytology only, positive cytology/FC, and negative for both, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that higher volumes produce better results for analysis. We recommend an optimal volume of 8.44 mL for cytologic work-up of malignancies. However, optimal volumes may differ based upon malignancy type and utilization of flow cytometry.

Alternate JournalDiagn Cytopathol
PubMed ID33044797
Related Faculty: 
Momin Siddiqui, M.D.

Pathology & Laboratory Medicine 1300 York Avenue New York, NY 10065 Phone: (212) 746-6464
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