Whole-genome characterization of myoepithelial carcinomas of the soft tissue.

TitleWhole-genome characterization of myoepithelial carcinomas of the soft tissue.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2022
AuthorsCyrta J, Rosiene J, Bareja R, Kudman S, Zoughbi WAl, Motanagh S, Wilkes DC, Eng K, Zhang T, Sticca E, Mathew S, Rubin MA, Sboner A, Elemento O, Rubin BP, Imielinski M, Mosquera JMiguel
JournalCold Spring Harb Mol Case Stud
Date Published2022 Dec
KeywordsBiomarkers, Tumor, Carcinoma, Child, Humans, Male, Myoepithelioma, Soft Tissue Neoplasms, Young Adult

Myoepithelial carcinomas (MECs) of soft tissue are rare and aggressive tumors affecting young adults and children, but their molecular landscape has not been comprehensively explored through genome sequencing. Here, we present the whole-exome sequencing (WES), whole-genome sequencing (WGS), and RNA sequencing findings of two MECs. Patients 1 and 2 (P1, P2), both male, were diagnosed at 27 and 37 yr of age, respectively, with shoulder (P1) and inguinal (P2) soft tissue tumors. Both patients developed metastatic disease, and P2 died of disease. P1 tumor showed a rhabdoid cytomorphology and a complete loss of INI1 (SMARCB1) expression, associated with a homozygous SMARCB1 deletion. The tumor from P2 showed a clear cell/small cell morphology, retained INI1 expression and strong S100 positivity. By WES and WGS, tumors from both patients displayed low tumor mutation burdens, and no targetable alterations in cancer genes were detected. P2's tumor harbored an EWSR1::KLF15 rearrangement, whereas the tumor from P1 showed a novel ASCC2::GGNBP2 fusion. WGS evidenced a complex genomic event involving mainly Chromosomes 17 and 22 in the tumor from P1, which was consistent with chromoplexy. These findings are consistent with previous reports of EWSR1 rearrangements (50% of cases) in MECs and provide a genetic basis for the loss of SMARCB1 protein expression observed through immunohistochemistry in 10% of 40% of MEC cases. The lack of additional driver mutations in these tumors supports the hypothesis that these alterations are the key molecular events in MEC evolution. Furthermore, the presence of complex structural variant patterns, invisible to WES, highlights the novel biological insights that can be gained through the application of WGS to rare cancers.

Alternate JournalCold Spring Harb Mol Case Stud
PubMed ID36577525
PubMed Central IDPMC9808553
Related Faculty: 
Juan Miguel Mosquera, M.D. Andrea Sboner, Ph.D.

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