Postconvalescent SARS-CoV-2 IgG and Neutralizing Antibodies are Elevated in Individuals with Poor Metabolic Health.

TitlePostconvalescent SARS-CoV-2 IgG and Neutralizing Antibodies are Elevated in Individuals with Poor Metabolic Health.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2021
AuthorsRacine-Brzostek SE, Yang HS, Jack GA, Chen Z, Chadburn A, Ketas TJ, Francomano E, Klasse PJ, Moore JP, McDonough KA, Girardin RC, Dupuis AP, Payne AF, Ma LX, Sweeney J, Zhong E, Yee J, Cushing MM, Zhao Z
JournalJ Clin Endocrinol Metab
Date Published2021 04 23
KeywordsAdult, Antibodies, Neutralizing, COVID-19, Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2, Female, Humans, Immunoglobulin G, Male, Metabolic Syndrome, Middle Aged, Obesity, Retrospective Studies

PURPOSE: Comorbidities making up metabolic syndrome (MetS), such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, and chronic cardiovascular disease can lead to increased risk of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) with a higher morbidity and mortality. SARS-CoV-2 antibodies are higher in severely or critically ill COVID-19 patients, but studies have not focused on levels in convalescent patients with MetS, which this study aimed to assess.

METHODS: This retrospective study focused on adult convalescent outpatients with SARS-CoV-2 positive serology during the COVID-19 pandemic at NewYork Presbyterian/Weill Cornell. Data collected for descriptive and correlative analysis included SARS-COV-2 immunoglobin G (IgG) levels and history of MetS comorbidities from April 17, 2020 to May 20, 2020. Additional data, including SARS-CoV-2 IgG levels, body mass index (BMI), hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and lipid levels were collected and analyzed for a second cohort from May 21, 2020 to June 21, 2020. SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies were measured in a subset of the study cohort.

RESULTS: SARS-CoV-2 IgG levels were significantly higher in convalescent individuals with MetS comorbidities. When adjusted for age, sex, race, and time duration from symptom onset to testing, increased SARS-CoV-2 IgG levels remained significantly associated with obesity (P < 0.0001). SARS-CoV-2 IgG levels were significantly higher in patients with HbA1c ≥6.5% compared to those with HbA1c <5.7% (P = 0.0197) and remained significant on multivariable analysis (P = 0.0104). A positive correlation was noted between BMI and antibody levels [95% confidence interval: 0.37 (0.20-0.52) P < 0.0001]. Neutralizing antibody titers were higher in COVID-19 individuals with BMI ≥ 30 (P = 0.0055).

CONCLUSION: Postconvalescent SARS-CoV-2 IgG and neutralizing antibodies are elevated in obese patients, and a positive correlation exists between BMI and antibody levels.

Alternate JournalJ Clin Endocrinol Metab
PubMed ID33524125
PubMed Central IDPMC7928889
Grant ListP01 AI110657 / AI / NIAID NIH HHS / United States
R01 AI036082 / AI / NIAID NIH HHS / United States
Related Faculty: 
Amy Chadburn, M.D. He Sarina Yang, M.D., Ph.D. Melissa Cushing, M.D. Sabrina Racine-Brzostek, M.D., Ph.D. Zhen Zhao, Ph.D.


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