Immunogenicity of COVID-19 mRNA vaccines in patients with acute myeloid leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome.

TitleImmunogenicity of COVID-19 mRNA vaccines in patients with acute myeloid leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2023
AuthorsHelfgott DC, Racine-Brzostek S, Short KJ, Zhao Z, Christos P, Nino I, Niu T, Contreras J, Ritchie EK, Desai P, Samuel M, Roboz GJ
JournalLeuk Lymphoma
Date Published2023 Mar
Keywords2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273, Adult, Antibodies, Neutralizing, Antibodies, Viral, BNT162 Vaccine, COVID-19, COVID-19 Vaccines, Humans, Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute, mRNA Vaccines, Myelodysplastic Syndromes, SARS-CoV-2, Vaccination

Immunocompromised patients are susceptible to complications from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). The mRNA vaccines BNT162b2 and mRNA-1273 are effective in immunocompetent adults, but have diminished activity in immunocompromised patients. We measured anti-spike SARS-CoV-2 antibody (anti-S) response, avidity, and surrogate neutralizing antibody activity in COVID-19 vaccinated patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). Anti-S was induced in 89% of AML and 88% of MDS patients, but median levels were significantly lower than in healthy controls. SARS-CoV-2 antibody avidity and neutralizing activity from AML patients were significantly lower than controls. Antibody avidity was significantly greater in patients after mRNA-1273 versus BNT162b2; there were trends toward higher anti-S levels and greater neutralizing antibody activity after mRNA-1273 vaccination. Patients with AML and MDS are likely to respond to COVID-19 mRNA vaccination, but differences in anti-S levels, avidity, and neutralizing antibody activity may affect clinical outcomes and require further study.

Alternate JournalLeuk Lymphoma
PubMed ID36282213
Grant ListUL1 TR002384 / TR / NCATS NIH HHS / United States
Related Faculty: 
Sabrina Racine-Brzostek, M.D., Ph.D. Zhen Zhao, Ph.D.

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