Cystic Granulosa Cell Tumors of the Ovary: An Analysis of 80 Cases of an Often Diagnostically Challenging Entity.

TitleCystic Granulosa Cell Tumors of the Ovary: An Analysis of 80 Cases of an Often Diagnostically Challenging Entity.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2022
AuthorsBoyraz B, Watkins JC, Soubeyran I, Bonhomme B, Croce S, Oliva E, Young RH
JournalArch Pathol Lab Med
Date Published2022 Dec 01
KeywordsAdolescent, Adult, Aged, Aged, 80 and over, Child, Child, Preschool, Cysts, Female, Granulosa Cell Tumor, Humans, Middle Aged, Mutation, Ovarian Neoplasms, Young Adult

CONTEXT.—: Granulosa cell tumors (GCTs) of both adult (AGCT) and juvenile (JGCT) types can rarely be completely or dominantly cystic, creating diagnostic difficulty because the cyst lining epithelium is often denuded.

OBJECTIVE.—: To describe clinical, gross, microscopic, immunohistochemical, and molecular features of cystic GCTs with an emphasis on their differential diagnosis.

DESIGN.—: We report 80 cystic GCTs (24 AGCTs and 56 JGCTs) in patients from ages 3 to 83 years (average ages, 35 years for AGCT and 22 years for JGCT).

RESULTS.—: Nineteen of 43 patients with known clinical information (3 AGCT and 16 JGCT) had androgenic manifestations. All tumors were greater than 8 cm (average, 17 cm) with minimal to absent gross solid component. Denudation of cells lining the cysts was prominent. Invagination of the epithelium into the cyst walls was a key diagnostic feature, was present as cords, trabeculae, solid nests, and small and large follicles, and was identified in most tumors (17 AGCTs and 45 JGCTs). Cytologic atypia was essentially absent in AGCTs, whereas 14 JGCTs showed moderate to severe atypia of bizarre type. A theca cell component was present in all tumors and was extensive in 54. A FOXL2 hotspot mutation was identified in 1 of 4 AGCTs tested.

CONCLUSIONS.—: Despite extensive denudation, the finding of typical architectural patterns and cytologic features as well as, in some cases, androgenic manifestations helps differentiate cystic GCTs from follicle cysts, the most common and challenging differential diagnosis, as well as other cystic neoplasms that may enter the differential diagnosis. FOXL2 sequencing may show a false-negative result in cystic AGCT because of the limited number of cells present within the tumor sample.

Alternate JournalArch Pathol Lab Med
PubMed ID35353158
Related Faculty: 
Baris Boyraz, M.D., Ph.D.

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