|Title||Association between CD8 and PD-L1 expression and outcomes after radical prostatectomy for localized prostate cancer.|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2021|
|Authors||Vicier C, Ravi P, Kwak L, Werner L, Huang Y, Evan C, Loda M, Hamid AA, Sweeney CJ|
|Date Published||2021 01|
|Keywords||B7-H1 Antigen, CD3 Complex, CD8 Antigens, Cohort Studies, Forkhead Transcription Factors, Humans, Immunohistochemistry, Male, Middle Aged, Neoplasm Metastasis, Neoplasm Recurrence, Local, Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor, Proportional Hazards Models, Prostatectomy, Prostatic Neoplasms, Retrospective Studies, Tissue Array Analysis|
BACKGROUND: Characterization of markers of both immune suppression and activation may provide more prognostic information than assessment of single markers in localized prostate cancer. We therefore sought to determine the association between CD8 and PD-L1 expression in localized prostate tumors and biochemical recurrence (BCR) and metastasis-free survival (MFS).
METHODS: Tissue microarrays were constructed on 109 men undergoing radical prostatectomy (RP) for localized prostate cancer at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute between 1991 and 2008. Fluorescence immunohistochemistry was used to evaluate the expression of six immune markers (CD3, CD4, CD8, PD-1, PD-L1, FOXP3). Quantitative multispectral imaging analysis was used to calculate the density of each marker, which was dichotomized by the median as "high" or "low." Cox proportional hazards regression models and Kaplan-Meier analyses were used to analyze associations between immune marker densities and time to BCR and MFS.
RESULTS: Over a median follow-up of 8.1 years, 55 (51%) and 39 (36%) men developed BCR and metastases, respectively. Median time to BCR was shorter in men with low CD8 (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.27 [1.27-4.08]) and high PD-L1 expression (HR = 2.03 [1.17-3.53]). While neither low CD8 or high PD-L1 alone were independent predictors of BCR or MFS on multivariable analysis, men with low CD8 and/or high PD-L1 had a significantly shorter time to BCR (median 3.5 years vs. NR) and MFS (median 10.8 vs. 18.4 years) compared to those with high CD8 and low PD-L1 expression. The main limitation is the retrospective and singe-center nature of the study.
CONCLUSION: The presence of higher CD8 and lower PD-L1 expression in prostatectomy specimens was associated a low risk of biochemical relapse and metastatic disease. These findings are hypothesis-generating and further study is needed.
Massimo Loda, M.D.