Cytopathology of rare gastric mesenchymal neoplasms: A series of 25 cases and review of literature.

TitleCytopathology of rare gastric mesenchymal neoplasms: A series of 25 cases and review of literature.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2023
AuthorsSaoud C, Illei PB, Siddiqui MT, Ali SZ
Date Published2023 Jan
KeywordsCytology, Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration, Gastrointestinal Neoplasms, Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors, Humans, Retrospective Studies, Stomach Neoplasms

BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST) is the most common mesenchymal neoplasm arising in the stomach. However, a number of other rare mesenchymal neoplasms do occur at this anatomic site, which often presents a diagnostic challenge for cytopathologists on endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA). Our study aims to selectively present the clinico-radiological and cytopathological characteristics of these rare "non-GIST" neoplasms, as well as their differential diagnoses.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: We performed a 20 year retrospective search in the cytopathology database of our two large medical institutions for non-GIST mesenchymal neoplasms arising in the stomach and diagnosed on EUS-FNA. Data regarding the patients' demographics and radiological findings were analysed. All available cytopathology specimens were reviewed. The cytomorphological characteristics and the accompanying immunohistochemical stains, when available, were subsequently analysed.

RESULTS: Twenty-five cases of gastric mesenchymal tumours were selectively included in the study after excluding all cases of GIST (n = 113) diagnosed on FNA. These cases included 10 leiomyomas (40%), eight schwannomas (32%), five glomus tumours (20%), one perivascular epithelioid cell neoplasm, and one desmoid tumour. The specimen cellularity was variable and ranged from hypocellular to highly cellular. Most smears were composed of spindle cells with a few showing epithelioid morphology. Cell blocks were available in 20 cases and a range of immunohistochemical ancillary studies were performed. DOG-1, c-KIT, smooth muscle actin (SMA), and S100-protein were the most common immunomarkers done.

CONCLUSION: Our study highlights important cytomorphological characteristics of rare mesenchymal neoplasms arising in the stomach. In the appropriate clinical setting and with the help of immunohistochemistry, an accurate diagnosis of these neoplasms can be achieved.

Alternate JournalCytopathology
PubMed ID36227114
Related Faculty: 
Momin Siddiqui, M.D.

Pathology & Laboratory Medicine 1300 York Avenue New York, NY 10065 Phone: (212) 746-6464
Surgical Pathology: (212) 746-2700