|Title||Prevalence of Inferior Vena Cava Compression in ADPKD.|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2021|
|Authors||Yin X, Blumenfeld JD, Riyahi S, Luo X, Rennert H, Barash I, Prince MR|
|Journal||Kidney Int Rep|
|Date Published||2021 Jan|
Introduction: Kidney and liver cysts in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) can compress the inferior vena cava (IVC), but IVC compression prevalence and its risk factors are unknown.
Methods: Patients who have ADPKD (n = 216) with abdominal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies and age-/sex-matched controls (n = 216) were evaluated for IVC compression as well as azygous vein diameter (a marker of collateral blood flow) and IVC aspect ratio (left-to-right dimension divided by anterior-to-posterior dimension with a value of 1 corresponding to a circular (high pressure) IVC caudal to compression.
Results: Severe IVC compression (≥70%) was observed in 33 (15%) ADPKD subjects and mild compression (≥50% to <70%) was observed in 33 (15%) subjects; whereas controls had no IVC compression ( < 0.001). Severe IVC compression was associated with larger azygous vein (4.0 ± 1.3 mm versus 2.3 ± 0.8 mm without IVC compression; < 0.001) and a more circular IVC cross-section upstream (mean IVC aspect ratio: 1.16 ± 0.27 vs. 1.69 ± 0.67, < 0.001), suggesting higher pressure upstream from the compression. IVC compression was associated with older age, lower estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), greater height-adjusted total kidney volumes, greater height-adjusted liver volume (ht-LV), and greater liver and renal cyst fractions ( < 0.001). No subject younger than 30 years had IVC compression, but ADPKD subjects ≥40 years old had 12-fold higher risk of IVC compression (95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.2-42.4), with highest predicted probability for Mayo Clinic classes 1D (59%; 95% CI: 39%-76%) and 1E (74%; 95% CI: 49%-90%) after adjustment ( < 0.001). Women with ht-LV ≥ 2000 ml/m had 83% (95% CI: 59%-95%) prevalence of IVC compression. Complications of IVC compression included deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and symptomatic hypotension.
Conclusions: IVC compression is common in ADPKD patients >40 years old, with Mayo Clinic class 1D/E, and in females with ht-LV > 2000 ml/m.
|Alternate Journal||Kidney Int Rep|
|PubMed Central ID||PMC7783582|
|Grant List||UL1 TR002384 / TR / NCATS NIH HHS / United States|
Hanna Rennert, Ph.D.